Devised the three general categories of interpretation of media texts amongst audience.
This is a step up from the Two-Step-Flow theory, which is a step up from the Hypodermic syringe theory, relating society to Media: That audience tend to interpret, understand and criticise media texts in social circles, based on pre-injected ideas in the media texts, as opposed to dealing with it as individuals.
The Active Audience Theory demonstrates the fine line between freewill and obligation in Media.
The general three interpretations of a media text are:
- Oppositional - people disagree with the message and reject it.
- Negotiated - On the whole, the view is agreed with but slightly altered.
- Dominant - The message is fully accepted.